There was an interesting article in The Telegraph several years ago about an Australian study found that height was positively correlated with income. For example 6ft tall men typically earned about 1.5% more than 5’10” men. Taller women also out-earned shorter women, though the effect was only half as large. The study also found that fat people earned just as much as skinny people, which is surprising because being fat would seem to lower productivity more than being short, particularly in jobs that require energy and stamina. This may suggest that there’s more discrimination against short people than there is against fat people. This may be because fatness is seen by many as a lifestyle choice while shortness may be seen as an intrinsic flaw. Obesity is also a relatively recent epidemic caused by the advent of modern mass food production, and there may not have been enough time for humans to evolve an innate prejudice against it.
Despite the correlation between height and income, the article notes that Bill Gates and Warren Buffet (both of whom have been America’s richest man) both have a fairly average height of 5’10”. I suspect this is because both men earned their wealth through business income, not salary. It’s the latter that’s probably more correlated with height because high salaries often require being promoted to positions of leadership where people want someone they can look up to (figuratively and literally) while successful entrepreneurs are often shorter because they started the business themselves and don’t have to be promoted.